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Creating Footnotes In Chicago Style

For every quotation or paraphrase you include in your paper, you need a footnote to show where the information came from. Footnotes are placed at the end of a sentence or the end of a clause and after most punctuation marks. The number should be in superscript.

Dyspepsia, a common plight in the 19th century, was seen by many as a "physical commentary on the stresses of the age."5

Many people noted "modern man's abuse of his body," and they argued dyspepsia was the inevitable result of such excesses.8

Shortening Footnotes

The first footnote should give the full information about the source as described in the document here. However, subsequent notes can be shortened. Shortened notes typically include

  • the author's last name, followed by a comma
  • the main title of the work, shortened to about four words (properly formatted in quotations marks or italics)
  • the page number, followed by a period.

Thus, the first note above would be a full note, and the second would be shortened.

5. Michelle Stacy, The Fasting Girl: A True Victorian Medical Mystery (New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 2002), 18.

8. Stacy, The Fasting Girl, 18.

Multiple Notes for the Same Source

If two notes for the same source follow one right after the other, you may use the abbreviation "Ibid." Latin for "in the same place," Ibid. should be written with a period, a comma, and the page number followed by a period. If the note refers to the same source and page number, no page number is necessary. In these following three notes, the first is a full note, the second is a note referring to the same source, different page number, and third refers to the same source, same page number.

8. Nicole Mones, The Last Chinese Chef (Boston: Houghton, 2007), 89.

9. Ibid., 90.

10. Ibid.

Inserting Notes in Microsoft Word

To insert a footnote in Word 2007, place your cursor where the footnote's superscript number will go, and under the References tab, choose Insert Footnote. This will place the superscript number at that place and open a space at the bottom of the page to type the note.

Word offers other useful features when working with footnotes.

  • By hovering your mouse cursor over the superscript number, you can see the note written below.
  • Under the References menu, you can use the Next Footnote button to move quickly from note to note.
  • If you insert or delete footnotes, Word will automatically renumber for you, both in the superscript numbers and in the footnotes below.

Click here to see a sample page in Chicago style, including footnotes.