Citing Sources in the Text in APA Style
When you use the ideas or words of another in your paper, you must document the source within the text of the paper and on the References page. For quotations and paraphrases, include an in-text citation that 1) clearly points to the source on the References page and 2) identifies the location of the borrowed information.
Citing a Quotation or Paraphrase
When you quote or paraphrase from a source, include the author’s last name, date of publication, and page number with the abbreviation p. (use pp. if the quotation or paraphrase is from multiple pages in the source).
One statistic that shows the need for a living wage law is that “for the first time on record, a person working full-time at the minimum wage cannot pay market rate rent on a one-bedroom apartment anywhere in the United States” (MacLean, 2007, p. 220).
What distinguishes a child with AD/HD from a child without AD/HD might not be the behaviors themselves, but the degree to which they are exhibited (Tuchman, 1996, p. 5).
If you mention the author’s name in the sentence, place the date directly after and include only the page number in the parentheses.
Bird (2004) suggests that “to respect an authority is to recognize the way in which its directives should structure agents’ deliberations about what to do” (p. 213).
According to MacLean (2007), the example of the former Soviet Union shows that, when workers are not paid well, their productivity decreases (p. 220).
Citing a Long Quotation
If a quotation is 40 words or longer, include it as a block quotation. Start the quotation on a new line, indent as you would for a new paragraph, and include author, year, and page number. Following the quotation, continue your paragraph at the beginning of the next line. To see an example of a block quotation in APA style, click here: Sample block quotation in APA style
Citing an Indirect Quotation or Paraphrase
Sometimes one of your sources may quote or paraphrase another source. For example, your source (an article written by Kleppner) quotes or paraphrases from another source (a book by Stanislov). If you include the quotation or paraphrase from Stanislov in your paper, you must cite both Kleppner and Stanislov in the in-text citation. However, list only Kleppner on your References page.
Stanislov argues for a proactive approach to adolescent anxiety (as cited in Kleppner, 2008, p. 75).
NOTE: If possible, you should locate the original source being quoted or paraphrased so that you can cite it directly in your paper and list it on the References page with your other sources.
Citing Source Material without Page Numbers
Some sources, especially online, do not provide page numbers. If your source doesn’t provide page numbers, omit the number reference in the citation. NOTE: If your source doesn’t appear to have page numbers, look for a link to a .pdf version of the source, which typically does include page numbers. However, do not use the page numbers that your printer or browser places on the pages when printing.
Citing Sources with Multiple Authors
For two authors, include both author names in each citation.
Thornton and Brown (2009) emphasize the “potential for growth in the demand for health services research (HSR) and health services researchers” (p. 2242).
NOTE: If you include more than one author in the parentheses, rather than in the sentence, use an ampersand (&) before the last author listed—(Thornton & Brown, 2009, p. 2242).
For three, four, or five authors, name all of the authors in the first citation; subsequently, include only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”
First Citation: Halla, Lackner, and Schneider (2010) point out that “new incentives created by the welfare state are in conflict with existing social norms” (p. 57).
Subsequent Citations: Halla et al. (2010) point out that “new incentives created by the welfare state are in conflict with existing social norms” (p. 57).
For six or more authors, name only the first author and “et al.” in every citation, including the first.
Citing Sources with a Group as Author
Some websites (and other sources) are authored by a group (an association, organization, government agency, corporation, etc.), rather than by an individual author. In these cases, use the group name in your citation.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009) indicates that over a third of sociologists are teachers.
Citing Sources without an Individual or Group Author
If your source does not include an individual author or group author, use the title (or a shortened version of the title) in your citation. Titles of articles, chapters, and parts of websites are enclosed in quotation marks.
Teens with depression find it difficult to concentrate on schoolwork or extracurricular activities (“Teens and Depression,” 2001).
NOTE: Always check the entire source before determining the source has no author. Especially for online sources, sometimes the author's name can be found at the bottom of the page, in small print, or on a home page.
Citing Personal Communication
Personal communication includes e-mails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, and discussion board postings. The citation should include an indication that the source is personal communication, the source’s name, and as exact a date as possible.
In practice, massage therapy often combines traditional massage, holistic healthcare, and non-traditional treatments, such as aromatherapy (C.H. Willis, personal communication, January 14, 2009).
NOTE: The in-text citation information for personal communication is particularly important because personal communication is cited only in the text. Personal communication sources are not listed on the References page.